I mentioned previously that there are three ways to secure a product from the point of view of a product manufacturing company. Here is a little more detailed explanation. This is my personal approach to classifying product security and you do not have to stick to this but I find it useful when creating or upgrading company’s security. I call these broad categories the “certification”, “product security” and “process security” approach. Bear in mind that my definition of security is also much broader than conventional.
The first approach is the simplest. You outsource your product security to another company. That external company, usually a security laboratory, will check your product’s security including as many aspects as necessary for a set target level of security assurance and will vouch for your product to your clients. This does not have to be as complicated and formal as the famous Common Criteria certification. This certification may be completely informal but it will provide a level of security assurance to your clients based on the following parameters: in how far the customers trust the lab, what was the target security level set for the audit and how well the product has fared. Some financial institutions will easily recognize the scheme because they often use a trusted security consultancy to look into the security of products supplied to them.
Now, this approach is fine and it allows you to keep the security outside with the specialists. There are of course a few problems with this approach too. Main problems are that it may be very costly, especially when trying to scale up, and it usually does not improve the security inside the company that makes the product.
So, if the company desires to build security awareness and plans to provide more than a single secure product, it is recommended that a more in-house security approach is chosen. Again, the actual expertise may come from outside, but the company in the following two approaches actually changes internally to provide a higher degree of security awareness.
One way is to use what I call “product security”. This is when you take a product and try to make it as secure as required without actually looking at the rest of the company. You only change those parts of the production process that directly impact the security and leave alone everything else. This approach is very well described by the “Common Criteria” standard. We usually use the Common Criteria for security evaluations and certifications but this is not required. You may simply use the standard as a guideline to your own implementation of the security in your products according to your own ideas of the level of security you wish to achieve. However, Common Criteria is an excellent guide that builds on the experience of many security professionals and can be safely named the only definitive guide to product security in the current world.
Anyway, in the “product security” approach you will only be changing things that relate directly to the product you are trying to secure. That means that there will be little to no impact on the security of other products but you will have one secure product in the end. Should you wish to make a second secure product, you will apply the same.
Now, of course, if you want to make all products secure it makes sense to apply something else, what I call “process security”. You would go and set up a security program that makes sure that certain processes are correctly executed, certain checks are performed, certain rules are respected and all of that together will give you an increase in security of all of your products across the company. Here we are seeing an orthogonal approach where you will not necessarily reach the required level of security very fast but you will be improving the security of everything gradually and equally.
This “process security” approach is well defined in the OpenSAMM methodology that could be used as a basis for the implementation of security inside the company. Again, OpenSAMM can be used for audits and certifications but you may use it as a guide to your own implementation. Take the parts that you think you need and adapt to your own situation.
The “process security” takes the broad approach and increases the security gradually across the board while the “product security” will deliver you quickly a single secure product with improvements to other products being incidental. A mix of the two is also possible, depending on priorities.